The prepuce, circumcision, and disease

Hygiene and prevention of disease are among the commonest reasons cited for performing male circumcision. This directory contains references that examine the validity of these claims in detail.


Urinary tract infection

Sexually transmitted diseases (except HIV)

HIV infection

Balanitis (inflammation of the glans)

[Note: Information about BXO (Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans) is here.]

Penile cancer and cervical cancer

General commentary

(Bollgren I, Winberg J. Letter to the editor. Acta Paed. Scand. 1991, 80: 575-7)


Penile hygiene for intact (non-circumcised) males


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