Female Genital Mutilation
Medical Society Statements
World Medical Association.
Statement on Condemnation of Female Genital Mutilation, Adopted by the 45th World Medical Assembly, Budapest, Hungary, October 1993. American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs,
Report 5 (I-94): Female Genital Mutilation, Chicago, 1994. Commitee on Medical Ethics.
Guidance for doctors approached by victims of female genital mutilation. London: British Medical Association, 1996. Committee on Bioethics, American Academy of Pediatrics.
Female Genital Mutilation (RE9749). Pediatrics 1998; 102(1):153-156. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Female Circumcision/Female Genital Mutilation (FC/FGM) Fact Sheet. Links to Organizations
Some Scholarly Journal Articles On The Internet
Pieters G, Lowenfels AB.
Infibulation in the horn of Africa. N Y State Med J 1977;77(5):729-731. Hrdy DB.
Cultural practices contributing to the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Africa. Rev Infect Dis 1987;9(6):1109-19. Mohamed Badawi.
Epidemiology of female sexual castration in Cairo, Egypt. Presented at The First International Symposium on Circumcision, Anaheim, California, March 1-2, 1989. Fran P. Hosken.
Female genital mutilation: strategies for eradication. Presented at The First International Symposium on Circumcision, Anaheim, California, March 1-2, 1989. Lightfoot-Klein, H.
The sexual adjustment of genitally circumcised and infibulated females in the Sudan. J Sex Res 1989;26(3):375-392. Lightfoot-Klein H, Shaw E.
Special needs of ritually circumcised women patients. JOGNN 1991;20(2):102-107. Dirie MA, Lindmark G.
The risk of medical complications after female circumcision. East Afr Med J 1992;69(9):479-482. Menage J.
Post-traumatic stress disorder in women who have undergone obstetric and/or gynaecological procedures. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 1993; 11:221-228. Hanny Lightfoot-Klein.
Erroneous Belief Systems Underlying Female Genital Mutilation in Sub-Saharan Africa and Male Neonatal Circumcision in the United States: a Brief Report Updated. Presented at The Third International Symposium on Circumcision, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland May 22-25, 1994. Black JA, DeBelle GD.
Female genital mutilation in Britain. BMJ 1995;310:1590-1592. Gallard C.
Female genital mutlation in France. BMJ 1995;310:1592-1593. Meniru GI, Meniru MO, Ezeh UO.
Female genital mutilation. BMJ 1995;311:1088. Menage J.
Professionals should not collude with abusive systems. BMJ 1995;311:1088-1089. Hamilton J.
UN condemns female circumcision. BMJ 1997;314:1145. Brady M.
Female genital mutilation: complications and risk of HIV transmission. Aids Patient Care STDS 1999;13(12):709-16. Ciment J.
Senegal outlaws female genital mutilation. BMJ 1999;318:348. Abboud P, Christian Quereux C, et al.
Stronger campaign needed to end female genital mutilation. BMJ 2000;320:1153. Welch J.
Caring for Women with Circumcision: A Technical Manual for Health Care Providers. BMJ 2000;320:1481. News.
Concern mounts over female genital mutilation. BMJ 2000;321:2. Scherf C.
Women in Africa have many other problems besides genital mutilation. BMJ 2000;321:570. Avshalom Zoossmann-Diskin.
Male genital mutilation in any society is surely abhorrent too. BMJ 2000;321:570. Some Law Resources on the Internet
Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985, United Kingdom
Female Genital Mutilation: A Report to the Attorney-General, prepared by the Family Law Council June 1994 (Australia).
Criminalization of Female Genital Mutilation Act. Pub. L. No. 104-208, § 645, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009-708 (1996) 18 U.S.C. 116. (United States)
Prohibition of female genital mutilation act, New South Wales, Australia
Section 268, Criminal Code of Canada, 1997. Abbie J. Chessler.
, 45 Buffalo L. Rev. 555 (1997). Justifying the Unjustifable: Rite v. Wrong Doriane Lambelet Coleman,
, 47 D The Seattle Compromise: Multicultural Sensitivity and Americanization UKE L.J. 717, 739 (1998). Dena S. Davis.
11 Health Matrix: Journal of Law-Medicine 487 (2001). Male and Female Genital Alteration: A Collision Course with the Law? Christine Mason.
, 9 J Law Med 58 (2001). Exorcising excision: medico-legal issues arising from male and female genital surgery in Australia International Human Rights Instruments
Female Circumcision in the United States
Circumcision in the female: Its necessity and how to perform it. American J Clin Med 1915;22(6):520-523. McDonald CF.
Circumcision in the female. GP 1958;XVIII(3):98-99. Rathman WG.
Female circumcision: Indications and a new technique. GP 1959;XX(3):115-120. Duffy J.
Clitoridectomy: A nineteeth century answer to masturbation. Presented at The First International Symposium on Circumcision, Anaheim, California, March 1-2, 1989. Linda Burstyn.
Female circumcision comes to America. The Atlantic Monthly 1996;276(4):28-35. Celia Dugger.
Congress bans genital rite. New York Times, October 12, 1996: A1. Christopher Baughman.
Doctors Testifies Surgeon Secretly Circumcised Woman. The Advocate, Baton Rouge, October 30, 1996. Barbara Crossette.
Mutilation Seen as Risk for the Girls of Immigrants. The New York Times, March 23, 1998. Michelle Milholland.
Woman circumcised by ex-husband awarded $35,000. The Advocate, Baton Rouge, 10 April 2001: 1B-2B.
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