Abbie J. Chessler: Justifying the Unjustifiable: Rite v. Wrong

Buffalo Law Review, Volume 45: Page 555, 1997.

head("JUSTIFYING THE UNJUSTIFIABLE:
RITE V. WRONG"); p("Abbie J. Chessler+"); p("Table of Contents

");
     Introduction..........................................    557") . "
  I. Types of Male and Female Circumcision and the Physical
     and Psychological Complications.......................    560") . "
     A.   Female Circumcision (Infibulation, Clitoridectomy,
          Sunna): The History, Procedures, and
          Complications....................................    560") . "
     B.   Routine Infant Male Circumcision: The History,
          Procedures, and Complications....................    560") . "
 II. Justifications for Female and Male Circumcision.......    573") . "
     A.   Cultural Justifications for Female and Male
          Circumcision.....................................    574") . "
     B.   Male Circumcision: The Medical Justifications
          and Medical Counterarguments.....................    575") . "
     C.   "Fitting in": Mutilating Children in the Name of
          Conformity.......................................    581") . "
     D.   Religious Justifications for Female and Male
          Circumcision: To Mutilate in the Name of God.....    581") . "
          1.   Legitimizing Female Circumcision Through
               Religion: Islam.............................    581") . "
          2.   Judaism, Christianity and Female Circum-
               cision......................................    583") . "
          3.   Judaism and Male Circumcision: The Bible
               and its contradictions......................    583") . "
          4.   Islam and Male Circumcision.................    585") . "
          5.   Christianity and Male Circumcision..........    586") . "
III. Legal Arguments Against Female and Male Circumcision..    586") . "
     A.   Legal Remedies for Female Circumcision: Utilizing
          International Documents, Foreign Legislation, and
          Domestic Legislation.............................    587") . "
     B.   Legal Remedies for Male Circumcision: Utilizing
          International Documents, Customary International
          Law, and Domestic Law............................    593") . "
          1.   International Documents and Customary Inter-
               national Law................................    593") . "
          2.   Domestic Remedies...........................    595") . "
     C.   Constitutional Issue.............................    596") . "
          1.   Parental Rights and the Right to Privacy....    596") . "
          2.   Freedom of Religion--The Free Exercise
               Clause......................................    598") . "
          3.   Religious Freedom Restoration Act...........    600") . "
     D.   Civil Lawsuits and the Informed Consent Doctrine.    603") . "
 IV. Final Recommendations.................................    604") . "
     Conclusion............................................    612") . "
hr();
p("+ B.A. 1992, " . elink("http://www.barnard.edu/","Barnard College") . ", Columbia University; J. D., May 1997, " . elink("http://www.buffalo.edu/","State University of New York at Buffalo") . ", " . elink("http://www.law.buffalo.edu/site/index.php","School of Law") . ". The author gratefully acknowledges the benefit she received for discussing earlier drafts of this comment with Professor David Filvaroff and Professor Isabel Marcus.");
hr(); Cite as:

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