Here is a partial list of documents provided to the American Academy of Pediatrics at its request in September 1996 by the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC) for the use of the AAP Task Force on Circumcision.
Unfortunately, in the final draft, the AAP did not take into account the information in all of these articles. (The most egregious omission, in our opinion, was the failure to cite Williams and Kapila's definitive 1993 article on circumcision complications.)
This list is made available courtesy of NOCIRC, PO Box 2512, San Anselmo, CA 94979-2512.
The documents are arranged by category and date of publication. Click on the bold headers for links to the appropriate sections of Circumcision Information and Resource Pages, with more references and the full text of some articles.
Gairdner, Douglas The Fate of The Foreskin British Medical Journal vol. 2 no. 4642 December 24 1949 pp. 1433-1437. Øster, Jakob Further Fate of the Foreskin: Incidence of Preputial Adhesions, Phimosis, and Smegma Among Danish Schoolboys Archives of Disease in Childhood vol. 43 no. 228, April 1968 pp. 200-203.
Bazett, H.C; B. McGlone; R.G. Williams; H.M. Lufkin Sensation I. Depth, Distribution and Probable Identification in the Prepuce of Sensory End-Organs Concerned in Sensations of Temperature and Touch; Thermometric Conductivity. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry vol. 27 no. 3 March 1932 pp. 489-517. Winkelmann, R.K. The Cutaneous Innervation of Human Newborn Prepuce Journal of Investigative Dermatology vol. 26 no. 1 January 1956 pp. 53-67. Winkelmann, R.K. The Erogenous Zones: Their Nerve Supply and its Significance Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic vol. 34 no. 2 January 21, 1959 pp. 39-47. Halata, Zdenek; Bryce L. Munger The Neuroanatomical Basis for the Protopathic Sensibility of the Human Glans Brain Research vol. 371, no. 2 April 23, 1986 pp. 205-230 Taylor, J.R; A.P. Lockwood; A.J. Taylor The Prepuce: Specialized Mucosa of the Penis and its Loss to Circumcision British Journal of Urology vol. 77 no. 2 February 1996 pp. 291-295.
AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn, AAP Committee on Drugs. Neonatal Anesthesia. Pediatrics 1987: 80:446. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics Religious exemptions from child abuse statutes. Pediatrics 1988; 81:169-171. Alderson, P. European charter of children's rights. Bulletin of Medical Ethics 1993;(October):13-15. Shield JPH, Baum JD. Children's consent to treatment. BMJ 1994;308:1182-1183. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics. Informed Consent, Parental Permission, and Assent in Pediatric Practice. Pediatrics 1995; 95:314-17. Denniston, GC. Circumcision and the code of ethics. Humane Health Care International 1996:12.
Warren, John P; Bigelow J. The Case Against Circumcision British Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 21 no. 5 September/October 1994 pp. 6-8. Fleiss, Paul M. More on Circumcision Clinical Pediatrics vol. 34 no. 11 November 1995 pp. 623-624. Warren, John P; P. David Smith; John D. Dalton; Graham R. Edwards; Marc Foden; Robert Preston; Philip Stewart; Adam Roberts; Philip C. Cookson; Joseph Elliott; J.S. Phillips; James Williams; Matthew Mallinson-Read; Ian Morris; John Bowring; Rob Warburton; James Blazeby; Tony Peters; John Moore; John Stevens Circumcision of Children British Medical Journal vol. 312 no. 7027 February 10, 1996 p. 377. Quigley, Anita Circumcise Warning to Parents Herald Sun March 13, 1996 Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society Neonatal Circumcision Revisited Canadian Medical Association Journal vol. 154 no. 6, March 15, 1996 pp. 769-780. Szasz, Thomas Routine Neonatal Circumcision: Symbol of the Birth of the Therapeutic State Journal of Medicine and Philosophy vol. 21 no. 2, April 1996 pp. 137-148. Australian College of Paediatrics Position Statement: Routine Circumcision of Normal Male Infants and Boys May 27, 1996
Williams, N; Kapila L. Complications of Circumcision British Journal of Surgery vol. 80 no. 10 October 1993 pp. 1231-1236. Staff Reporter Child Awarded Damages Leader Post Regina November 1975 Richards, M.P.M; J.F. Bernal; Yvonne Brackbill Early Behavioral Differences: Gender or Circumcision? Developmental Psychobiology vol. 9 no. 1 January 1976 pp. 89-95. Gee, William F; Julian S. Ansell. Neonatal Circumcision: A Ten-Year Overview: With Comparison of the Gomco Clamp and the Plastibell Device Pediatrics vol. 58 no. 6 December 1976 pp. 824-827. Alex, Tom Death of Baby Puzzles Officials Des Moines Register November 13, 1982 Racher, Peter Bleeding Death to Grand Jury Des Moines Register November 13, 1982 Staff Reporter Circumcision Probed in Death Des Moines Register November 13, 1982 Racher, Peter Grand Jury to Probe Death of Baby after Circumcision Des Moines Register November 20, 1982 p. 3A Kaplan, George W. Complications of Circumcision Urologic Clinics of North America vol. 10 no. 3 August 1983 pp. 543-549. Seabrook, Charles Sex Change Should Give Circumcision Victim ``Near Normal'' Life Atlanta Constitution September 21, 1985 pp. 1B Staff Reporter Surgical Mistake Leads to Lawsuit, Sex-Change Operation on Black Baby Jet vol. 69 no. 11 November 25, 1985 p. 29. Gearhart, John P. Complications of Pediatric Circumcision Urologic Complications: Medical and Surgical, Adult and Pediatric. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers. 1986 pp. 387-396. Lopo, Vincent Family gets $2.75 Million in Wrongful Surgery Suit Lake Charles American Press May 28, 1986 Gearhart, John P; John A Rock. Total Ablation of The Penis After Circumcision With Electrocautery: A Method Of Management and Long-term Followup Journal of Urology vol. 142 no. 3 September 1989 pp. 799-801. Staff Reporter Botched Circumcision Costs Atlanta Hospital $22.8 Million Jet vol. 79 no. 25 April 1, 1991 p. 9. Associated Press Boy in Coma Most of his 6 Years Dies The State (Columbia, South Carolina) July 10, 1992 p. 5B Rogers, Peggy; Richard Wallace Infant Bleeds to Death after Being Circumcised Miami Herald June 26, 1993 pp. B1-B2 Lum, Lydia; Ruth SoRelle Boy's Autopsy Results Expected: Five-Year-Old Lapsed into Coma Following Circumcision Houston Chronicle July 28, 1995 pp. 28A Lum, Lydia; Ruth SoRelle Boy's Death to be Probed: Physician is Suspended Houston Chronicle July 29, 1995 p. 29A.
Reddy, Govinda; I.K.S.M. Baruah. Carcinogenic Action of Human Smegma Archives of Pathology vol. 75 no. 4 April 1963 pp. 414-420. Hellberg, Dan; Jack Valentin; Tore Eklund; Staffan Nilsson. Penile Cancer; Is There an Epidemiological Role for Smoking and Sexual Behaviour? British Medical Journal vol. 295 no. 6609 November 21, 1987 pp. 1306-1308. Harish K; Ravi R. The Role of Tobacco in Penile Carcinoma British Journal of Urology vol. 75 no. 3 March 1995 pp. 375-377. Frisch, Morten; Soren Friis; Susanne Kruger Kjaer; Mads Melbye Falling Incidence of Penis Cancer in an Uncircumcised Population (Denmark 1943-1990) British Medical Journal vol. 311 no. 7018 December 2, 1995 p. 1471. Fleiss, Paul M; Frederick Hodges Neonatal Circumcision Does Not Protect Against Penile Cancer British Medical Journal vol. 312 no. 7033 March 23, 1996 pp. 779-780. Fleiss, Paul M. RE: The Detection of Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Intraepithelial, in Situ, Verrucous and Invasive Carcinoma of the Penis Journal of Urology vol. 155 no. 6 June 1996 pp. 2034-2035. Van Howe, Robert RE: The Detection of Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Intraepithelial, in Situ, Verrucous and Invasive Carinoma of the Penis Journal of Urology vol. 155 no. 6 June 1996 pp. 2035-2036. Fleiss, Paul M; Frederick Hodges Neonatal Circumcision and Penile Cancer British Medical Journal vol. 313 no. 7048 July 6, 1996 p. 47.
Allen, Susan; Christina Lindan; Antoine Serufilira; Philippe Van de Perre; Amy Chen Rundle; Francois Nsengumuremyi; Michel Carael; Joan Schwalbe; Stephen Hulley. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Urban Rwanda; Demographic and Behavioral Correlates in a Representative Sample of Childbearing Women Journal of the American Medical Association vol. 266 no. 12 September 25, 1991 pp. 1657-1663. Barongo, Longin R; Martien W. Borgdorff; Frank F. Mosha; Angus Nicoll; Heiner Grosskurth; Kesheni P. Senkoro; James N. Newell; John Changalucha; Arnoud H. Klokke; Japhet Z. Killewo; Johna P. Velema; Richard J. Hayes; David T. Duynn; Lex A.S. Muller; Joas B. Rugemalila. The epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in urban areas, roadside settlements and rural villages in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. AIDS vol. 6 no. 12 December 1992 pp. 1521-1528. De Vincenzi I; Mertens T. Male Circumcision: A Role in HIV Prevention? AIDS, vol. 8 no. 2 February 1994 pp. 153-160. Chao, Ann; Marc Bulterys; Felicite Musanganire; Phocas Habimana; Paula Nawrocki; Ellen Taylor; Abel Dushimimana; Alfred Saah; The National University of Rwanda -- Johns Hopkins University AIDS Research Team. Risk Factors Associated with HIV-1 Infection among Pregnant Women in Rwanda. International Journal of Epidemiology vol. 23 no. 2 April 1994 pp. 371-380 Grosskurth, Heiner; Frank Mosha; James Todd; Kesheni Senkoro; James Newell; Arnoud Klokke; John Changalucha; Beryl West; Philippe Mayaud; Awena Gavyole; Reverianus Gabone; David Mabey; Richard Hayes. A Community Trial of the Impact of Improved Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment on the HIV Epidemic in Rural Tanzania: 2. Baseline Survey Results. AIDS vol. 9 no. 8 August 1995 pp. 927-934. Storms MR. AAFP fact sheet on neonatal circumcision: a need for updating. American Family Physician 1996;54:1216-7.
Brackbill, Yvonne Continuous stimulation and arousal level in infancy: effects of stimulus intensity and stress. Child Development vol. 46 no. 2 June 1975 pp. 364-369. Gunnar, Megan R., Robert O. Fisch, Sherry Korsvik, John M. Donhowe The Effects of Circumcision on Serum Cortisol and Behavior Psychoneuroendocrinology vol. 6 no. 3 1981 pp. 269-275. Gunnar, Megan R., Robert O. Fisch, Steve Malone The Effects of a Pacifying Stimulus on Behavioral and Adrenocortical Responses to Circumcision in the Newborn Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry vol. 23 no. 1 January 1984 pp. 34-38. Wallerstein, E Is Nonreligious Circumcision Necessary? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry vol. 24 no. 3 May 1985 pp. 364-365. Gunnar Megan R; Stephen Malone; Gail Vance; Robert O. Fisch Coping with Aversive Stimulation in the neonatal Period: Quiet Sleep and Plasma Cortisol Levls During Recovery from Circumcision. Child Development vol. 56 no. 4 August 1985 pp. 824-834. Williamson, Paul S; Nolan Donovan Evans. Neonatal Cortisol Response To Circumcision With Anesthesia Clinical Pediatrics vol. 25 no. 8 August 1986 pp. 412-415. Anand, K.J.S; P.R. Hickey Pain and its Effects In The Human Neonate and Fetus New England Journal of Medicine vol. 317 no. 21 November 19 1987 pp. 1321-1329 Porter, Fran Lang; Stephen W. Porges; Richard W. Marshall Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone: Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision Child Development vol. 59 no. 2 April 1988 pp. 495-505. Taddio A; Goldbach M; Ipp M; Stevens B; Koren G. Effect of Neonatal Circumcision on Pain Responses during Vaccination in Boys. Lancet vol. 345 no. 8945 February 4, 1995 pp. 291-292. Fleiss, Paul M. Circumcision. Lancet vol. 345 no. 8954 April 8, 1995 p. 927 Warren, John Circumcision Lancet vol. 345 no. 8954 April 8, 1995 pp. 927.
Rickwood, A.M.K; Jenny Walker. Is Phimosis Overdiagnosed in Boys and Are Too Many Circumcision Performed in Consequence? Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England vol. 71 no. 5 September 1989 pp. 275-277. Dunn, H.P. Non-Surgical Management of Phimosis Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery vol. 59 no. 12 December 1989 pp. 963. Griffiths D, Frank JD. Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1992;85:324-5. Jorgensen, E.T; Svensson A. The Treatment of Phimosis in Boys, with a Potent Topical Steroid Clobetasol Propionate 0.05%) Cream Acta Dermato-Venereologica vol. 73 no. 1 February 1993 pp. 55-56. Wright JE. The treatment of childhood phimosis with topical steroid. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery. 1994;64:327-8. Cuckow, Peter M; Gerald Rix; Pierre D.E. Mouriquand Preputial Plasty: A Good Alternative to Circumcision Journal of Pediatrics vol. 29 no. 4 Dewan, PA; CU Tieu; BS Chieng Phimosis: Is Circumcision Necessary? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health vol. 32 no. 1996 pp. 285-289.
Cooper FF, Thompson GJL, Raine PAM. Therapeutic retraction of the foreskin in childhood. BMJ 1984;286:186-187. Griffiths DM, Freeman NV. Non-surgical separation of preputial adhesions Lancet 1984; 2:344. Pfaff G, Bolkenius M. Hands off the prepuce. Lancet 1984;2:874-5. MacKinlay GA. Save the Prepuce. Painless separation of preputial adhesions in the outpatient clinic. BMJ 1988; 297: 590-591.
Levy DM. Psychic trauma of operations in children. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1945;69:7-45. Cansever, Gocke Psychological Effects of Circumcision British Journal of Medical Psychology vol. 38 no. 4 December 1965 pp. 321-331. Kennedy H. Trauma in Childhood. Signs and sequelae as seen in the analysis of an adolescent. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1986;41:209-19. Goldman R. Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma. Vanguard Publications, Boston, 1997.
Gothefors L, Olling S, Winberg J. Breast Feeding and biological properties. Acta paediatr Scan 1975;64:807-812. Kaack MB, Roberts JA, Baskin G, Patterson GM. Maternal Immunization with P Fimbriae for the Prevention of neonatal Pyelonephritis. Infection and Immunity 1988;56:1-6. Winberg J, Bollgren I, Gothefors L, Herthelius M, Tullus K. The prepuce: a mistake of nature? Lancet 1989;1:598-9. Coppa GV, Gabrielli O, Giorgi P, Catassi C, Montanari MP, Varaldo PE, Nicholas BL. Preliminary study of breastfeeding and bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Lancet 1990;355:569-71. Pisacane A, Graziano L, Gregorio Z. Breastfeeding and urinary tract infection. Lancet 1990;336:50. Marild S, Jodal U, Hanson LA. Breastfeeding and urinary-tract infection Lancet 1990;336:942. Winberg J. Ask the expert: Is routine circumcision advised in boys with obstructive uropathy in order to prevent urinary tract infection? Pediatric Nephrology 1991;5:178. Pisacane A, Graziano L, Mazzarella G, Scarpellino B, Zona G. Breast-feeding and urinary tract infection. Journal of Pediatrics 1992;120:87-9. Chessare JB. Circumcision: is the risk of urinary tract infection really the pivotal issue? Clinical Pediatrics 1992;31:100-4 Fleiss, Paul M. Explanation for False-positive Urine Cultures Obtained by Bag Technique Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine vol. 149 no. 9 September 1995 pp. 1041-1042.
Smith, Gregory L; Robert Greenup; Ernest T. Takafuji Circumcision As a Risk Factor For Urethritis In Racial Groups American Journal of Public Health (Washington) vol. 77 no. 4 Cook, Linda S; Laura A. Koutsky; King K. Holmes Clinical Presentation of Genital Warts Among Circumcised and Uncircumcised Heterosexual Men Attending an Urban STD Clinic Genitourinary Medicine vol. 69 no. 4 August 1993 pp. 262-264. Birley HDL, Walker MM, Luzzi, GA, et al. Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis; association with atopy and genital washing. Genitourinary Mediocine 1993; 69:400-403. Bassett Ingrid; Basil Donovan; Neil J Bodsworth; Peter R Field; Davie W T Ho; Stig Jeansson; Anthony L Cunningham Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection of Heterosexual Men Attending a Sexual Health Centre Medical Journal of Australia vol. 160 no. 11, June 6, 1994 pp. 697-700. Donovan B; Bassett I; Bodsworth NJ. Male Circumcision and Common Sexually Transmissible Diseases in a Developed Nation Setting Genitourinary Medicine vol. 70 no. 5, October 1994 pp. 317-320.
Zitter, Jay M. Liability for Medical Malpractice in Connection with Performance of Circumcision American Law Review vol. 4 1975 pp. 710-727. Brigman, William E. Circumcision As Child Abuse: The Legal And Constitutional Issues Journal Of Family Law vol. 23 no. 3 1984-1985 pp. 337-357.