Frequently Asked Questions about Infant Circumcision

Compiled from various sources by
Geoffrey T. Falk (gtf @

(For more information, click on any highlighted item.)

Selected References

  1. Warren and Bigelow. British Journal of Sexual Medicine, Sept/Oct 1994.
  2. Maden, Christopher, et al., "History of Circumcision, Medical Conditions, and Sexual Activity and Risk of Penile Cancer," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1993;85:19-24.
  3. Cook LS, Koutsky LA, Holmes KK. Circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. Am J Public Health 1994; 84: 197-201.
  4. Cook LS. Koutsky LA. Holmes KK. Clinical presentation of genital warts among circumcised and uncircumcised heterosexual men attending an urban STD clinic. Genitourin Med 1993; 69: 262-264.
  5. Donovan B, Bassett I, Bodsworth NJ. Male circumcision and common sexually transmissible diseases in a developed nation setting. Genitourin Med 1994; 70: 317-20.
  6. Smith GL, Greenup R, Takafuji ET. Circumcision as a risk factor for urethritis in racial groups. Am J Public Health 1987; 77: 452-4.
  7. Guimaraes M, Castilho E, Ramos-Filho C, et al. Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1: a multicenter study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. VII International Conference on AIDS. Florence, June 1991 [abstract MC3098].
  8. Pisacane, A. Breastfeeding and Urinary Tract Infection. Lancet, July 7, 1990:50.
  9. Marshall RE, Stratton WC, Moore JA, Boxerman SB, Circumcision I: effects upon newborn behavior. Infant Behav Dev. 1980;3:1-14
  10. Marshall RE, Porter FL, Rogers AG, Moore J, Anderson B, Boxerman SB, Circumcision II: effects upon mother-infant interaction. Early Human Development 1982;7:367-374
  11. Lawler, F. Circumcision: Decision Analysis of its Medical Value. Family Medicine, 1991;23:587-593.
  12. Elizabeth Stern, M.D., Peter Neely, Ph.D., "Cancer of the Cervix in Reference to Circumcision and Marital History", Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, Vol. 17, No. 9 (Sept. 1962)
  13. Anand and Hickey. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl J Med 1987; 317(21): 1321-9.
  14. Dixon S, Snyder J, Holve R, Bromberger P. Behavioral Aspects of circumcision with and without anesthesia. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1984;5:246-250.
  15. Williams N, Kapila L. Complications of circumcision. Br J Surg 1993; 80: 1231-6.
  16. Wiswell TE, Routine Neonatal Circumcision: A Reappraisal, Armed Forces Physician 41(3), Mar 1990, 859-863
  17. Altschul, M. Cultural Bias and the UTI/Circumcision Controversy. The Truth Seeker Jul/Aug 1989, 43-45.
  18. Kayaba H. Analysis of shape and retractability of the prepuce in 603 Japanese boys. Journal of Urology (Nov 1996), 156(5):1813-1815
  19. Taylor JR, Lockwood AP, Taylor AJ. The prepuce: specialized mucosa of the penis and its loss to circumcision. British Journal of Urology (Feb 1996), 77, 291-295
  20. de Vincenzi I, Mertens T. Male circumcision: a role in HIV prevention? AIDS 1994, 8(2), 153-160.
  21. Cansever G. Psychological effects of circumcision. Brit J Med Psychol (1965), 38, p 321.
  22. Laumann E. Circumcision in the United States: Prevalence, Prophylactic Effects, and Sexual Practice. JAMA 277 No. 13, 1052-1057, April 2, 1997.
  23. Taddio A, Koren G et al. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet, Vol. 349: Pages 599-603 (March 1, 1997)
  24. Birley HDL et al. Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis; Association with atopy and genital washing. Genitourinary Medicine 1993; 69: 400-403.

The information in this FAQ is not meant to replace the care and advice of your pediatrician.
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