Here is a partial list of documents provided to the American Academy of Pediatrics at its request in September 1996 by the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC) for the use of the AAP Task Force on Circumcision.

Unfortunately, in the final draft, the AAP did not take into account the information in all of these articles. (The most egregious omission, in our opinion, was the failure to cite Williams and Kapila's definitive 1993 article on circumcision complications.)

This list is made available courtesy of NOCIRC, PO Box 2512, San Anselmo, CA 94979-2512.

The documents are arranged by category and date of publication. Click on the bold headers for links to the appropriate sections of Circumcision Information and Resource Pages, with more references and the full text of some articles.


Gairdner, Douglas
The Fate of The Foreskin
British Medical Journal
vol. 2 no. 4642
December 24 1949 pp. 1433-1437.

Øster, Jakob
Further Fate of the Foreskin:  Incidence of Preputial
Adhesions, Phimosis, and Smegma Among Danish Schoolboys
Archives of Disease in Childhood
vol. 43 no. 228, April 1968 pp. 200-203.


Bazett, H.C;  B. McGlone;  R.G.  Williams;  H.M. Lufkin
Sensation  I.  Depth, Distribution and Probable
Identification in the Prepuce of Sensory End-Organs
Concerned in Sensations of Temperature and Touch;
Thermometric Conductivity.
Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry
vol. 27 no. 3
March 1932 pp. 489-517.

Winkelmann, R.K.
The Cutaneous Innervation of Human Newborn Prepuce
Journal of Investigative Dermatology
vol. 26 no. 1
January 1956 pp. 53-67.

Winkelmann, R.K.
The Erogenous Zones:  Their Nerve Supply and its
Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic
vol. 34 no. 2
January 21, 1959 pp. 39-47.

Halata, Zdenek; Bryce L. Munger
The Neuroanatomical Basis for the
Protopathic Sensibility of the Human Glans
Brain Research
vol. 371,  no. 2
April 23, 1986 pp. 205-230

Taylor, J.R;  A.P. Lockwood;  A.J. Taylor
The Prepuce:  Specialized Mucosa of the Penis and its Loss
to Circumcision
British Journal of Urology
vol. 77 no. 2
February 1996 pp. 291-295.


AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn, AAP
Committee on Drugs. Neonatal Anesthesia. Pediatrics
1987: 80:446.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics
Religious exemptions from child abuse statutes.
Pediatrics 1988; 81:169-171.

Alderson, P.
European charter of children's rights.
Bulletin of Medical Ethics 1993;(October):13-15.

Shield JPH, Baum JD.
Children's consent to treatment.
BMJ 1994;308:1182-1183.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics.
Informed Consent, Parental Permission, and Assent in
Pediatric Practice.
Pediatrics 1995; 95:314-17.

Denniston, GC.
Circumcision and the code of ethics.
Humane Health Care International 1996:12.


Warren, John P; Bigelow J.
The Case Against Circumcision
British Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 21 no. 5
September/October 1994 pp. 6-8.

Fleiss, Paul M.
More on Circumcision
Clinical Pediatrics
vol. 34 no. 11
November 1995 pp. 623-624.

Warren, John P;  P. David Smith;  John D. Dalton;  Graham R.
Edwards; Marc Foden;  Robert Preston;  Philip Stewart;  Adam
Roberts;  Philip C. Cookson;  Joseph Elliott;  J.S.
Phillips;  James Williams;  Matthew Mallinson-Read;  Ian
Morris;  John Bowring;  Rob Warburton;  James Blazeby;
Tony Peters;  John Moore;  John Stevens
Circumcision of Children
British Medical Journal
vol. 312 no. 7027
February 10, 1996 p. 377.

Quigley, Anita
Circumcise Warning to Parents
Herald Sun
March 13, 1996

Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society
Neonatal Circumcision Revisited
Canadian Medical Association Journal
vol. 154 no. 6, March 15, 1996 pp. 769-780.

Szasz, Thomas
Routine Neonatal Circumcision:
Symbol of the Birth of the Therapeutic State
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
vol. 21 no. 2, April 1996 pp. 137-148.

Australian College of Paediatrics
Position Statement:  Routine Circumcision of Normal Male
Infants and Boys
May 27, 1996


Williams, N; Kapila L.
Complications of Circumcision
British Journal of Surgery
vol. 80 no. 10
October 1993 pp. 1231-1236.

Staff Reporter
Child Awarded Damages
Leader Post Regina
November 1975

Richards, M.P.M; J.F. Bernal; Yvonne Brackbill
Early Behavioral Differences:  Gender or Circumcision?
Developmental Psychobiology
vol. 9 no. 1
January 1976 pp. 89-95.

Gee, William F; Julian S. Ansell.
Neonatal Circumcision: A Ten-Year Overview:  With Comparison
of the Gomco Clamp and the Plastibell Device Pediatrics
vol. 58 no. 6
December 1976 pp. 824-827.

Alex, Tom
Death of Baby Puzzles Officials
Des Moines Register
November 13, 1982

Racher, Peter
Bleeding Death to Grand Jury
Des Moines Register
November 13, 1982

Staff Reporter
Circumcision Probed in Death
Des Moines Register
November 13, 1982

Racher, Peter
Grand Jury to Probe Death of Baby after Circumcision
Des Moines Register
November 20, 1982 p. 3A

Kaplan, George W.
Complications of Circumcision
Urologic Clinics of North America
vol. 10 no. 3
August 1983 pp. 543-549.

Seabrook, Charles
Sex Change Should Give Circumcision Victim ``Near Normal'' Life
Atlanta Constitution
September 21, 1985 pp. 1B

Staff Reporter
Surgical Mistake Leads to Lawsuit,
Sex-Change Operation on Black Baby
vol. 69 no. 11
November 25, 1985 p. 29.

Gearhart, John P.
Complications of Pediatric Circumcision
Urologic Complications:  Medical and Surgical, Adult and Pediatric.
Year Book Medical Publishers.
1986 pp. 387-396.

Lopo, Vincent
Family gets $2.75 Million in Wrongful Surgery Suit
Lake Charles American Press
May 28, 1986

Gearhart, John P; John A Rock.
Total Ablation of The Penis After Circumcision With
Electrocautery:  A Method Of Management and Long-term Followup
Journal of Urology
vol. 142 no. 3
September 1989 pp. 799-801.

Staff Reporter
Botched Circumcision Costs Atlanta Hospital $22.8 Million
vol. 79 no. 25
April 1, 1991 p. 9.

Associated Press
Boy in Coma Most of his 6 Years Dies
The State (Columbia, South Carolina)
July 10, 1992 p. 5B

Rogers, Peggy; Richard Wallace
Infant Bleeds to Death after Being Circumcised
Miami Herald
June 26, 1993 pp. B1-B2

Lum, Lydia;  Ruth SoRelle
Boy's Autopsy Results Expected:
Five-Year-Old Lapsed into Coma Following Circumcision
Houston Chronicle
July 28, 1995 pp. 28A

Lum, Lydia;  Ruth SoRelle
Boy's Death to be Probed:  Physician is Suspended
Houston Chronicle
July 29, 1995 p. 29A.


Reddy, Govinda; I.K.S.M. Baruah.
Carcinogenic Action of Human Smegma
Archives of Pathology
vol. 75 no. 4
April 1963 pp. 414-420.

Hellberg, Dan;  Jack Valentin;  Tore Eklund;  Staffan Nilsson.
Penile Cancer; Is There an Epidemiological Role
for Smoking and Sexual Behaviour?
British Medical Journal
vol. 295 no. 6609
November 21, 1987 pp. 1306-1308.

Harish K;  Ravi R.
The Role of Tobacco in Penile Carcinoma
British Journal of Urology
vol. 75 no. 3
March 1995 pp. 375-377.

Frisch, Morten;  Soren Friis;  Susanne Kruger Kjaer;  Mads Melbye
Falling Incidence of Penis Cancer in an Uncircumcised
Population (Denmark 1943-1990)
British Medical Journal
vol. 311 no. 7018
December 2, 1995 p. 1471.

Fleiss, Paul M;  Frederick Hodges
Neonatal Circumcision Does Not Protect Against Penile Cancer
British Medical Journal
vol. 312 no. 7033
March 23, 1996 pp. 779-780.

Fleiss, Paul M.
RE:  The Detection of Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic
Acid in Intraepithelial, in Situ, Verrucous and Invasive
Carcinoma of the Penis Journal of Urology
vol. 155 no. 6
June 1996 pp. 2034-2035.

Van Howe, Robert
RE:  The Detection of Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic
Acid in Intraepithelial, in Situ, Verrucous and Invasive
Carinoma of the Penis
Journal of Urology
vol. 155 no. 6
June 1996 pp. 2035-2036.

Fleiss, Paul M;  Frederick Hodges
Neonatal Circumcision and Penile Cancer
British Medical Journal
vol. 313 no. 7048
July 6, 1996 p. 47.


Allen, Susan;  Christina Lindan;  Antoine Serufilira;
Philippe Van de Perre;  Amy Chen Rundle;  Francois
Nsengumuremyi;  Michel Carael;  Joan Schwalbe;  Stephen Hulley.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Urban Rwanda;
Demographic and Behavioral Correlates in a Representative
Sample of Childbearing Women
Journal of the American Medical Association
vol. 266 no. 12
September 25, 1991 pp. 1657-1663.

Barongo, Longin R; Martien W. Borgdorff; Frank F. Mosha;
Angus Nicoll; Heiner Grosskurth; Kesheni P. Senkoro;  James
N. Newell; John Changalucha; Arnoud H. Klokke; Japhet Z.
Killewo; Johna P. Velema;  Richard J. Hayes;
David T. Duynn; Lex A.S. Muller; Joas B. Rugemalila.
The epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in urban areas, roadside
settlements and rural villages in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.
vol. 6 no. 12
December 1992 pp. 1521-1528.

De Vincenzi I; Mertens T.
Male Circumcision:  A Role in HIV Prevention?
AIDS, vol. 8 no. 2
February 1994 pp. 153-160.

Chao, Ann;  Marc Bulterys;  Felicite Musanganire;  Phocas
Habimana;  Paula Nawrocki;  Ellen Taylor;  Abel Dushimimana;
Alfred Saah;  The National University of Rwanda – Johns
Hopkins University AIDS Research Team.
Risk Factors Associated with HIV-1 Infection among Pregnant
Women in Rwanda.
International Journal of Epidemiology
vol. 23 no. 2
April 1994 pp. 371-380

Grosskurth, Heiner; Frank Mosha; James Todd; Kesheni
Senkoro; James Newell; Arnoud Klokke; John Changalucha;
Beryl West; Philippe Mayaud; Awena
Gavyole;  Reverianus Gabone;  David Mabey;  Richard Hayes. A
Community Trial of the Impact of Improved Sexually
Transmitted Disease Treatment on the HIV Epidemic in Rural
Tanzania: 2. Baseline Survey Results.
vol. 9 no. 8
August 1995 pp. 927-934.

Storms MR.
AAFP fact sheet on neonatal circumcision:
a need for updating.
American Family Physician 1996;54:1216-7.


Brackbill, Yvonne
Continuous stimulation and arousal level in infancy:
effects of stimulus intensity and stress.
Child Development
vol. 46 no. 2
June 1975 pp. 364-369.

Gunnar, Megan R., Robert O. Fisch, Sherry Korsvik, John M. Donhowe
The Effects of Circumcision on Serum Cortisol and Behavior
vol. 6 no. 3
1981 pp. 269-275.

Gunnar, Megan R., Robert O. Fisch, Steve Malone
The Effects of a Pacifying Stimulus on Behavioral and
Adrenocortical Responses to Circumcision in the Newborn
Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry
vol. 23 no. 1
January 1984 pp. 34-38.

Wallerstein, E
Is Nonreligious Circumcision Necessary?
Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry
vol. 24 no. 3 May 1985 pp. 364-365.

Gunnar Megan R; Stephen Malone; Gail Vance; Robert O. Fisch
Coping with Aversive Stimulation in the neonatal Period:
Quiet Sleep and Plasma Cortisol Levls During Recovery from
Child Development vol. 56 no. 4
August 1985 pp. 824-834.

Williamson, Paul S; Nolan Donovan Evans.
Neonatal Cortisol Response To Circumcision With Anesthesia
Clinical Pediatrics vol. 25 no. 8
August 1986 pp. 412-415.

Anand, K.J.S;  P.R. Hickey
Pain and its Effects In The Human Neonate and Fetus
New England Journal of Medicine vol. 317 no. 21
November 19 1987 pp. 1321-1329

Porter, Fran Lang;  Stephen W. Porges;  Richard W. Marshall
Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone:
Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision
Child Development vol. 59 no. 2
April 1988 pp. 495-505.

Taddio A; Goldbach M; Ipp M; Stevens B; Koren G.
Effect of Neonatal Circumcision on Pain Responses during
Vaccination in Boys.
Lancet vol. 345 no. 8945
February 4, 1995 pp. 291-292.

Fleiss, Paul M.
Lancet vol. 345 no. 8954
April 8, 1995 p. 927

Warren, John
Lancet vol. 345 no. 8954
April 8, 1995 pp. 927.


Rickwood, A.M.K;  Jenny Walker.
Is Phimosis Overdiagnosed in Boys and Are Too Many
Circumcision Performed in Consequence?
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
vol. 71 no. 5
September 1989 pp. 275-277.

Dunn, H.P. Non-Surgical Management of Phimosis
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery
vol. 59 no. 12
December 1989 pp. 963.

Griffiths D, Frank JD.
Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

Jorgensen, E.T; Svensson A.
The Treatment of Phimosis in Boys, with a Potent Topical
Steroid Clobetasol Propionate 0.05%) Cream
Acta Dermato-Venereologica vol. 73 no. 1
February 1993 pp. 55-56.

Wright JE.
The treatment of childhood phimosis with topical steroid.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery.

Cuckow, Peter M; Gerald Rix; Pierre D.E. Mouriquand
Preputial Plasty:  A Good Alternative to Circumcision
Journal of Pediatrics vol. 29 no. 4

Dewan, PA; CU Tieu; BS Chieng
Phimosis:  Is Circumcision Necessary?
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health vol. 32 no.
1996 pp. 285-289.


Cooper FF,  Thompson GJL,  Raine PAM.
Therapeutic retraction of the foreskin in childhood.
BMJ 1984;286:186-187.

Griffiths DM, Freeman NV.
Non-surgical separation of preputial adhesions
Lancet 1984; 2:344.

Pfaff G, Bolkenius M.
Hands off the prepuce.
Lancet 1984;2:874-5.

MacKinlay GA.
Save the Prepuce. Painless separation of preputial adhesions
in the outpatient clinic.
BMJ 1988; 297: 590-591.


Levy DM.
Psychic trauma of operations in children.
American Journal of Diseases of Children

Cansever, Gocke
Psychological Effects of Circumcision
British Journal of Medical Psychology vol. 38 no. 4
December 1965 pp. 321-331.

Kennedy H.
Trauma in Childhood.  Signs and sequelae as seen in the
analysis of an adolescent.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1986;41:209-19.

Goldman R.
Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma. Vanguard Publications,
Boston, 1997.


Gothefors L, Olling S, Winberg J.
Breast Feeding and biological properties.
Acta paediatr Scan 1975;64:807-812.

Kaack MB, Roberts JA, Baskin G, Patterson GM.
Maternal Immunization with P Fimbriae for the
Prevention of neonatal Pyelonephritis.
Infection and Immunity 1988;56:1-6.

Winberg J, Bollgren I, Gothefors L, Herthelius M, Tullus K.
The prepuce:  a mistake of nature?
Lancet 1989;1:598-9.

Coppa GV, Gabrielli O, Giorgi P, Catassi C, Montanari MP,
Varaldo PE, Nicholas BL.
Preliminary study of breastfeeding and
bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells.
Lancet 1990;355:569-71.

Pisacane A, Graziano L, Gregorio Z.
Breastfeeding and urinary tract infection.
Lancet 1990;336:50.

Marild S, Jodal U, Hanson LA.
Breastfeeding and urinary-tract infection
Lancet 1990;336:942.

Winberg J.
Ask the expert:  Is routine circumcision advised in boys
with obstructive uropathy in order to prevent urinary tract
Pediatric Nephrology 1991;5:178.

Pisacane A, Graziano L, Mazzarella G,
Scarpellino B, Zona G.
Breast-feeding and urinary tract infection.
Journal of Pediatrics

Chessare JB.
Circumcision: is the risk of urinary tract infection
really the pivotal issue?
Clinical Pediatrics 1992;31:100-4

Fleiss, Paul M.
Explanation for False-positive Urine Cultures
Obtained by Bag Technique
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
vol. 149 no. 9
September 1995 pp. 1041-1042.


Smith, Gregory L; Robert Greenup; Ernest T. Takafuji
Circumcision As a Risk Factor For Urethritis In Racial Groups
American Journal of Public Health (Washington)
vol. 77 no. 4

Cook, Linda S; Laura A. Koutsky; King K. Holmes
Clinical Presentation of Genital Warts Among Circumcised and
Uncircumcised Heterosexual Men Attending an Urban STD Clinic
Genitourinary Medicine vol. 69 no. 4
August 1993 pp. 262-264.

Birley HDL, Walker MM, Luzzi, GA, et al.
Clinical features and management of recurrent balanitis;
association with atopy and genital washing.
Genitourinary  Mediocine 1993; 69:400-403.

Bassett Ingrid; Basil Donovan; Neil J Bodsworth; Peter R
Field;  Davie W T Ho; Stig Jeansson; Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection of Heterosexual Men
Attending a Sexual Health Centre
Medical Journal of Australia
vol. 160 no. 11, June 6, 1994 pp. 697-700.

Donovan B; Bassett I; Bodsworth NJ.
Male Circumcision and Common Sexually Transmissible Diseases
in a Developed Nation Setting Genitourinary Medicine
vol. 70 no. 5, October 1994 pp. 317-320.


Zitter, Jay M.
Liability for Medical Malpractice in Connection with
Performance of Circumcision
American Law Review
vol. 4
1975 pp. 710-727.

Brigman, William E.
Circumcision As Child Abuse:
The Legal And Constitutional Issues
Journal Of Family Law
vol. 23 no. 3
1984-1985 pp. 337-357.

(Return to CIRP's AAP Task Force Monitor Page)